Okt. Andreas Möller steigt als Co-Trainer bei der ungarischen Nationalmannschaft ein , zunächst für die EM-Playoffs gegen Norwegen. Im Falle. Nov. Andreas Möller fährt zur EM: Der ehemalige deutsche Nationalspieler begleitet Ungarn bei der historischen Teilnahme bei der Endrunde in. Bernd Storck (* Januar in Herne) ist ein deutscher Fußballtrainer und ehemaliger Fußballspieler. Zwischen und trainierte er die ungarische Nationalmannschaft. Als Co-Trainer engagierte er den Deutschen Andreas Möller und den Ungarn Zoltán Szélesi. Unter Storck qualifizierte sich Ungarn erstmals. Juni Nachfolger von Jol. Forscher schlagen Alarm Hambacher Forst: Mehr zum Thema Wer fährt noch nach Frankreich?: September nach nur drei Spieltagen wieder seinen Hut nehmen. Dieser Rekord wurde erst fast vierzig Jahre später von Argentinien eingestellt, dem bis auch eine Serie von 31 ungeschlagenen Länderspielen gelang. Zumindest bis Mitte Oktober In der Qualifikation an Portugal und der Schweiz gescheitert. Nach 25 Siegen in 59 Partien muss der gebürtige Oberschlesier die Trainerbank am Juli zum VfL Osnabrück. In der Qualifikation an Griechenland gescheitert. Im Folgejahr wurde England erneut bezwungen, diesmal 7: Doch was dem gebürtigen Malchiner nun widerfahren ist, hat selbst in diesem schnelllebigen Business Seltenheitswert. August besiegte die Mannschaft jedoch überraschend Weltmeister Italien 3: Dieses Duell fand bisher über Neuauflagen, lediglich das Duell Argentinien-Uruguay fand öfter statt.
Ungarn co trainer -Knäbels Zeit als Interimstrainer ist nach zwei Spielen vorbei. Vielleicht weil er wirklich einen Plan hatte. Löw muss um Leverkusener zittern Nach Reus-Absage: Juli blieb die ungarische Nationalmannschaft in 31 offiziellen Länderspielen in Folge ungeschlagen, bis sie im WM -Endspiel Deutschland unterlag. Zumal der malige Champion erstaunlich schnell einen Nachfolger präsentierte.
After German occupation, Hungary participated in the Holocaust. Nearly all of them were murdered. In addition to the over , Hungarian Jews killed,  as many as ,   other Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labor by Czechoslovaks,       Soviet Red Army troops,    and Yugoslavs.
On 13 February , Budapest surrendered; by April, German troops left the country under Soviet military occupation.
His government's policies of militarization, industrialization, collectivization, and war compensation led to a severe decline in living standards.
In the ensuing purges approximately , officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from to Some , Hungarians were deported to Soviet labor camps, where at least , died.
The following political cooling saw the ascent of Imre Nagy to the premiership, and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life.
Hungary joined the Warsaw Pact in May , as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October , protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the Revolution.
In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy returned as premier, promised free elections, and took Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact.
Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the countryside.
For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary, but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc.
On 4 November reinforcements of more than , troops and 2, tanks entered the country from the Soviet Union.
Some 13, were interned and brought to trial and executed. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.
In , the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising.
In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us. The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one tenth of pre-revolutionary levels.
From the s through the late s, Hungary was often referred to as " the happiest barrack " within the Eastern bloc. In the s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond.
Over , people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country.
Free elections were held in May , which saw the Hungarian Democratic Forum , a major conservative opposition group, elected to the head of a coalition government.
With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in , Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession.
The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the Socialist Party , won the subsequent elections.
This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in and ; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected.
Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in and the European Union in The legislature consequently approved a new constitution , among other sweeping governmental and legal changes.
Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in and a third in The vote was carried with the support of MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required.
The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state. Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the Danube and Tisza rivers.
The Danube flows north-south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin.
Transdanubia , which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains.
To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. Lake Balaton , the largest lake in Central Europe.
Bükk National Park ; Bükk is rich in karst formations, such as limestone caves. The Tisza is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.
Balaton Uplands National Park. Autumn in the Bükk Mountains. Hungary has a continental climate ,  with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters.
Average annual temperature is 9. Temperature extremes are Hungary is a unitary , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.
The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in ; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary.
Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the state structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: Importantly, the president is also invested with veto power , and may send legislation to the member Constitutional Court for review.
The third most-significant governmental position in Hungary is the Speaker of the National Assembly , who is elected by the National Assembly and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.
The Prime Minister miniszterelnök is elected by the National Assembly, serving as the head of government and exercising executive power.
Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees , survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the president.
The cabinet reports to parliament. According to Eurostat , the government gross debt of Hungary amounts to Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system.
The last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April The new electoral law also entered into force that day.
The voters elected MPs instead of previous lawmakers. The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the s,   and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period.
The articles of the diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy , this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter.
As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise , it was reconstituted in The Latin term Natio Hungarica "Hungarian nation" was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility , the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers,   regardless of language or ethnicity.
The judicial system of Hungary is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.
Hungarian law is codified and based on German law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. Hungary's highest courts are located in Budapest.
The Hungarian Police is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in Hungary. It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control.
The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments.
This merger took place in January Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties megye. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units.
County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government.
The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.
Since , the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes.
Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.
The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in and the next will be in Hungary's capital city, Budapest, is home to more than embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor.
Since , Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary since has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania , Slovakia , and Ukraine.
These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up.
Since , the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine.
The Global Peace Index ranked Hungary 19th out of countries. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces.
Since , the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified command structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army.
In , the armed forces had 31, personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand.
In , the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime.
Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in in order to become more efficient through cyber security.
Hungary sent strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war.
One soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries.
In , the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets. By HDF already had over 2, officers and , men organized into eighty-six battalions and fifty-eight squadrons.
During the s and early s, Hungary was preoccupied with regaining the territories and population lost in the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in Conscription was introduced on a national basis in The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80, men organized into seven corps commands.
During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era — , the entire , strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons.
Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with very high human development index and skilled labour force with the 16th lowest income inequality in the world, furthermore it is the 15th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index.
Hungary is an export-oriented market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade , thus the country is the 36th largest export economy in the world.
On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22 percent and government expenditure with 20 percent.
Electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology , information security , and related hardware research.
Unemployment rate was 4. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation.
Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary. Hungary maintains its own currency, the Hungarian forint HUF , although the economy fulfills the Maastricht criteria with the exception of public debt, but it is also significantly below the EU average with the level of Hungary's achievements in science and technology have been significant, and research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy.
Hungary also has one of the highest rates of filed patents , the 6th highest ratio of high-tech and medium high-tech output in the total industrual output, the 12th highest research FDI inflow, placed 14th in research talent in business enterprise and has the 17th best overall innovation efficiency ratio in the world.
The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research, Development and Innovation Office NRDI Office , which is a national strategic and funding agency for scientific research, development and innovation , the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the Hungarian Government , and the primary RDI funding agency.
Scientific research in the country is supported partly by industry and partly by the state, through the network of Hungarian universities and by scientific state-institutions such as Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Tabula Hungariae and Bibliotheca Corviniana. Contemporary, internationally well-known Hungarian scientists include: Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists.
Hungary has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. Budapest, Debrecen , Miskolc , and Szeged have tram networks.
The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world; its Line 1 dates from The system consists of four lines.
Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital.
The most important port is Budapest. There are five international airports in Hungary: Low-budget airline WizzAir is based in Hungary, at Ferihegy.
Hungary's population was 9,, according to the census , making it the fifth most populous country in Central and Eastern Europe and medium-sized member state of the European Union.
Population density stands at inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average.
More than one quarter of the population lived in the Budapest metropolitan area , 6,, people Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing sub-replacement fertility ; its estimated total fertility rate of 1.
In , the conservative government began a program to increase the birth rate with a focus on ethnic Magyars by reinstating 3 year maternity leave as well as boosting part-time jobs.
The birth rate has gradually increased from 1. Hungary recognizes two sizable minority groups, designated as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries in Hungary: German community of about , that lives throughout the country, and a Romani minority numerous around , that mainly resides in the northern part of the country.
According to the census, there were 8,, Today approximately 5 million Hungarians live outside Hungary. Hungarian is the official and predominant spoken language in Hungary.
Hungarian is the 13th most widely spoken first language in Europe with around 13 million native speakers and it is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union.
According to the census, 9,, people Hungarian Magyar is a member of the Uralic language family , unrelated to any neighboring language and distantly related to Finnish and Estonian.
It is the largest of the Uralic languages in terms of the number of speakers and the only one spoken in Central Europe.
Standard Hungarian is based on the variety spoken in the capital of Budapest , although use of the standard dialect is enforced, Hungarian has a number of urban and rural dialects.
Hungary is a historically Christian country. Hungarian historiography identifies the foundation of the Hungarian state with Stephen I's baptism and coronation with the Holy Crown in A.
Stephen promulgated Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and his successors were traditionally known as the Apostolic Kings. Contemporary Hungary, however, has no official religion.
While the constitution "recognizes Christianity's nation-building role",  freedom of religion is a fundamental right. With the onset of the Protestant Reformation , most Hungarians took up first Lutheranism , then soon afterwards Calvinism.
In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a Counterreformation campaign and the population once again became predominantly Catholic.
However, in comparison to other European regions where such efforts were undertaken, it was not at all successful largely because of religious freedom secured by Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves.
Some localities all over Hungary are still majority Protestant either Lutheran or Reformed and the country's eastern regions, especially around Debrecen the "Calvinist Rome" , remain predominantly Reformed.
Orthodox Christianity in Hungary is associated with the country's ethnic minorities: Historically, Hungary was home to a significant Jewish community.
Some Hungarian Jews were able to escape the Holocaust during World War II, but most perhaps ,  were either deported to concentration camps, whence most did not return, or murdered in Hungary by Arrow Cross members.
The census showed that the majority of Hungarians were Christians Education in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Education.
Preschool - kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until the age of sixteen.
Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance.
Most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions , and students traditionally study without fee payment.
The general requirement for university is the Matura. The Hungarian public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities.
Health insurance for students is free until the end of their studies. English and German language is important in Hungarian higher education, there are a number of degree programs that are taught in these languages, which attracts thousands of exchange students every year.
Hungary's higher education and training has been ranked 44 out of countries in the Global competitiveness Report Hungary has a long tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established knowledge economy.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure, its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in by Emperor Joseph II.
The Hungarian health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.
Total health expenditure was 1, Hungary is one of the main destinations of medical tourism in Europe. Hungary is home to numerous medicinal spas ,  spa tourism sometimes combined with other treatments.
Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau , or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics.
Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner — , the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs.
In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary.
Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries.
The Sezession from Vienna , the German Jugendstil , Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century.
In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings.
In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall.
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The equality of all customary languages " landesübliche Sprachen " in school, office and public life, is recognized by the state. In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second country language " Landessprache " , each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language.
The implementation of this principle led to several disputes, as it was not clear which languages could be regarded as "customary".
The Germans, the traditional bureaucratic, capitalist and cultural elite, demanded the recognition of their language as a customary language in every part of the empire.
German nationalists, especially in the Sudetenland part of Bohemia , looked to Berlin in the new German Empire. That is it did not demand an independent state, rather it flourished by holding most of the high military and diplomatic offices in the Empire.
Italian was regarded as an old "culture language" Kultursprache by German intellectuals and had always been granted equal rights as an official language of the Empire, but the Germans had difficulty in accepting the Slavic languages as equal to their own.
On one occasion Count A. Auersperg Anastasius Grün entered the Diet of Carniola carrying what he claimed to be the whole corpus of Slovene literature under his arm; this was to demonstrate that the Slovene language could not be substituted for German as the language of higher education.
The following years saw official recognition of several languages, at least in Austria. From , laws awarded Croatian equal status with Italian in Dalmatia.
From , there was a Slovene majority in the Diet of Carniola and in the capital Laibach Ljubljana ; they ruled to replace German with Slovene as their primary official language.
Galicia designated Polish instead of German in as the customary language of government. The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia , where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German.
The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery since the 13th century.
The constitution of made the German language a second official language and equal to Czech. German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague and Pilsen while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno Brünn.
The old Charles University in Prague , hitherto dominated by German speakers, was divided into German and Czech-speaking faculties in At the same time, Hungarian dominance faced challenges from the local majorities of Romanians in Transylvania and in the eastern Banat , Slovaks in today's Slovakia , and Croats and Serbs in the crown lands of Croatia and of Dalmatia today's Croatia , in Bosnia and Herzegovina , and in the provinces known as the Vojvodina today's northern Serbia.
The Romanians and the Serbs began to agitate for union with their fellow nationalists and language speakers in the newly founded states of Romania — and Serbia.
Hungary's leaders were generally less willing than their Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, but they granted a large measure of autonomy to Croatia in To some extent, they modelled their relation to that kingdom on their own compromise with Austria of the previous year.
In spite of nominal autonomy, the Croatian government was an economic and administrative part of Hungary, which the Croatians resented. The count finally signed the trialist proclamation after heavy pressure from the king on 23 October Language was one of the most contentious issues in Austro-Hungarian politics.
All governments faced difficult and divisive hurdles in deciding on the languages of government and of instruction. The minorities sought the widest opportunities for education in their own languages, as well as in the "dominant" languages—Hungarian and German.
By the "Ordinance of 5 April ", the Austrian Prime Minister Count Kasimir Felix Badeni gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia ; this led to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the empire.
The Crown dismissed Badeni. From June , all public and private schools in Hungary were obliged to ensure that after the fourth grade, the pupils could express themselves fluently in Hungarian.
This led to the closing of several minority schools, devoted mostly to the Slovak and Rusyn languages. The two kingdoms sometimes divided their spheres of influence.
According to Misha Glenny in his book, The Balkans, — , the Austrians responded to Hungarian support of Czechs by supporting the Croatian national movement in Zagreb.
In recognition that he reigned in a multi-ethnic country, Emperor Franz Joseph spoke and used German, Hungarian and Czech fluently, and Croatian, Serbian, Polish and Italian to some degree.
Around , Jews in the empire numbered about two million;  their position was ambiguous. Antisemitic parties and movements existed, but the governments of Vienna and Budapest did not initiate pogroms or implement official antisemitic policies.
The antisemitic parties remained on the periphery of the political sphere due to their low popularity among voters in the parliamentary elections.
In that period, the majority of Jews in Austria-Hungary lived in small towns shtetls in Galicia and rural areas in Hungary and Bohemia, although there were large communities in Vienna, Budapest, Prague and other large cities.
Of the pre-World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command.
The number of Jews were estimated from religious census. It did not include the Jewish origin people who were converted to Christianity, or the number of atheists.
The minister of foreign affairs conducted the foreign relations of the Dual Monarchy, and negotiated treaties. The Dual Monarchy was created in the wake of a losing war in with Prussia and Italy.
To rebuild Habsburg prestige and gain revenge against Prussia, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust became foreign secretary. He hated Prussia's diplomat, Otto von Bismarck , who had repeatedly outmaneuvered him.
No terms could be reached. The decisive victory of Prusso-German armies in the war of with France and the founding of the German Empire ended all hope of revenge and Beust retired.
After being forced out of Germany and Italy, the Dual Monarchy turned to the Balkans, which were in tumult as nationalistic efforts were trying to end the rule of the Ottomans.
Both Russia and Austria-Hungary saw an opportunity to expand in this region. Russia in particular took on the role of protector of the Slavs and the orthodox Christians.
Austria envisioned a multi-ethnic, religiously diverse empire under Vienna's control. He wanted Germany to ally with Austria, not Russia.
The Congress of Berlin in let Austria occupy but not annex the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina , a predominantly Slavic area.
In , Slavic militants in Bosnia rejected Austria's plan to fully absorb the area; they assassinated the Austrian heir and precipitated World War I.
The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the Dual Monarchy. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its year existences.
Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The first Austrian stock exchange the Wiener Börse was opened in in Vienna, the first stock exchange of the Kingdom of Hungary the Budapest Stock Exchange was opened in Budapest in The central bank Bank of issue was founded as Austrian National Bank in The gross national product per capita grew roughly 1.
Like the German Empire, that of Austria-Hungary frequently employed liberal economic policies and practices.
The dynamic Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.
Economic growth centered on Vienna and Budapest, the Austrian lands areas of modern Austria , the Alpine region and the Bohemian lands.
In the later years of the 19th century, rapid economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands.
As a result, wide disparities of development existed within the empire. In general, the western areas became more developed than the eastern.
The Kingdom of Hungary became the world's second largest flour exporter after the United States. Hungary became the most important foreign food supplier of the large cities and industrial centres of the United Kingdom.
However, by the end of the 19th century, economic differences gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of the monarchy consistently surpassed that in the western.
The strong agriculture and food industry of the Kingdom of Hungary with the centre of Budapest became predominant within the empire and made up a large proportion of the export to the rest of Europe.
Meanwhile, western areas, concentrated mainly around Prague and Vienna, excelled in various manufacturing industries. This division of labour between the east and west, besides the existing economic and monetary union , led to an even more rapid economic growth throughout Austria-Hungary by the early 20th century.
However, since the turn of the twentieth century, the Austrian half of the Monarchy could preserve its dominance within the empire in the sectors of the first industrial revolution , but Hungary had a better position in the industries of the second industrial revolution , in these modern sectors of the second industrial revolution the Austrian competition could not become dominant.
The empire's heavy industry had mostly focused on machine building, especially for the electric power industry , locomotive industry and automotive industry , while in light industry the precision mechanics industry was the most dominant.
Through the years leading up to World War I the country became the 4th biggest machine manufacturer in the world.
The two most important trading partners were traditionally Germany Hungarian car production started in Automotive factories in the Kingdom of Hungary manufactured motorcycles, cars, taxicabs, trucks and buses.
The first airplane in Austria was Edvard Rusjan 's design, the Eda I, which had its maiden flight in the vicinity of Gorizia on 25 November Between and , the Hungarian aircraft industry began developing.
The locomotive steam engines and wagons, bridge and iron structures factories were installed in Vienna Locomotive Factory of the State Railway Company , founded in , in Wiener Neustadt New Vienna Locomotive Factory , founded in , and in Floridsdorf Floridsdorf Locomotive Factory , founded in Galicia has been described as the poorest province of Austro-Hungary.
The near constant famines in Galicia , resulting in 50, deaths a year, have been described as endemic.
By , the combined length of the railway tracks of the Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary reached 43, kilometres 26, miles.
Rail transport expanded rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its predecessor state , the Habsburg Empire , had built a substantial core of railways in the west, originating from Vienna, by Austria's first steam railway from Vienna to Moravia with its terminus in Galicia Bochnie was opened in At that point, the government realized the military possibilities of rail and began to invest heavily in construction.
The government then began to sell off large portions of track to private investors to recoup some of its investments and because of the financial strains of the Revolution and of the Crimean War.
From to , private interests conducted almost all rail construction. During this time, many new areas joined the railway system and the existing rail networks gained connections and interconnections.
This period marked the beginning of widespread rail transportation in Austria-Hungary, and also the integration of transportation systems in the area.
Railways allowed the empire to integrate its economy far more than previously possible, when transportation depended on rivers.
After , the Austrian and the Hungarian governments slowly began to renationalize their rail networks, largely because of the sluggish pace of development during the worldwide depression of the s.
Most of this constituted "filling in" of the existing network, although some areas, primarily in the far east, gained rail connections for the first time.
The railway reduced transportation costs throughout the empire, opening new markets for products from other lands of the Dual Monarchy.
By , the total length of the rail networks of Hungarian Kingdom reached 22, kilometres 14, miles , the Hungarian network linked more than 1, settlements.
This has ranked Hungarian railways the 6th most dense in the world ahead of countries as Germany or France. Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century.
Between the s and s many were built. Vienna , Budapest , Brno Steam trams appeared in the late s. The electrification of tramways started from the late s.
The first electrified tramway in Austria-Hungary was built in Budapest in The Budapest metro Line 1 originally the "Franz Joseph Underground Electric Railway Company" is the second oldest underground railway in the world  the first being the London Underground's Metropolitan Line and the third being Glasgow , and the first on the European mainland.
It was built from to and opened on 2 May In the engineer C. It was born from the desire of Austria-Hungary to have a direct link to the Adriatic Sea  but was never constructed.
The riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping.
In German, the passage is still known as the Kataraktenstrecke, even though the cataracts are gone. Near the actual " Iron Gates " strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until Upstream, the Greben rock near the "Kazan" gorge was notorious.
The length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1, kilometres miles. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain , which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe.
Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area.
The first Hungarian steamship was built by Antal Bernhard in , called S. It was also the first steamship in Habsburg ruled states.
The most significant seaport was Trieste today part of Italy , where the Austrian merchant marine was based. In addition, the two major shipping companies Austrian Lloyd and Austro-Americana and several shipyards were located there.
This port grew as Venice declined. From to , Venice was included within the monarchy and was prevented from competing with Austrian-ruled ports.
The merchant marine did not develop until Venice's shipping interest declined. The navy became significant during the time of the k.
The most important seaport for the Hungarian part of the k. The largest Hungarian shipbuilding company was the Ganz-Danubius. Another significant seaport was Pola Pula , today part of Croatia — especially for the navy.
In , the Austrian merchant marine consisted of 10, ships, with 7, fishing vessels. The coast and sea trade had a total of 1, sailboats with crews of 6, men and a load capacity of , tons; and steamers with a load capacity of 96, tons and a crew of 3, men.
The first Danubian steamer company, Donau-Dampfschiffahrt-Gesellschaft DDSG , was the largest inland shipping company in the world until the collapse of the k.
The Austrian Lloyd was one of the biggest ocean shipping companies of the time. Prior to the beginning of World War I, the company owned 65 middle-sized and large steamers.
In , the first telegraph connection Vienna — Brno — Prague started operation. In , during the Hungarian Revolution, another telegraph centre was built in Buda to connect the most important governmental centres.
The first telegraph connection between Vienna and Pest—Buda later Budapest was constructed in ,  and Vienna—Zagreb capital of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia in In , 2, telegraph post offices operated in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The first telephone exchange was opened in Zagreb 8 January ,    the second was in Budapest 1 May ,  and the third was opened in Vienna 3 June Public telephone stations appeared in the s, and they quickly became widespread in post offices and railway stations.
Austria-Hungary had million telephone calls in ; only two Western European countries had more phone calls: The Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France with million telephone calls and Italy with million phone calls.
In , there were million telephone calls in the Austrian half of the monarchy, among them 8. All telephone exchanges of the cities, towns and larger villages in Kingdom of Hungary were linked until Two decades before the introduction of radio broadcasting, people could listen to political, economic and sport news, cabaret, music and opera in Budapest daily.
It operated over a special type of telephone exchange system. The census of recorded Umgangssprache , everyday language. Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache , even when having a different Muttersprache.
In the Austrian Empire, In the Kingdom of Hungary, Note that some languages are considered dialects of more widely spoken languages.
Yiddish was counted as "German" in both Austria and Hungary. Solely in the Empire of Austria: Solely in the Kingdom of Hungary: The organization of the Austrian elementary schools was based on the principle of compulsory school attendance, free education, and the imparting of public instruction in the child's own language.
Side by side with these existed private schools. The proportion of children attending private schools to those attending the public elementary schools in was , to 4.
Hence the accusation of denationalizing children through the Schulvereine must be accepted with caution. The expenses of education were distributed as follows: Since the State supervised the schools without maintaining them, it was able to increase its demands without being hampered by financial considerations.
It is remarkable that the difference between the State educational estimates in Austria and in Hungary was one of 9. It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.
The number of elementary schools increased from 19, in two to 24, in ; the number of scholars from 3,, in to 4,, in Emperor Charles IV in Prague in The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.
Thus Germans, Czechs and Poles were provided for. But now the smaller nations also made their voices heard: The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there.
Since the Poles were at first unyielding, Ruthenian demonstrations and strikes of students arose, and the Ruthenians were no longer content with the reversion of a few separate professorial chairs, and with parallel courses of lectures.
By a pact concluded on 28 January the Poles promised a Ruthenian university; but owing to the war the question lapsed.
The Italians could hardly claim a university of their own on grounds of population in 19to they numbered , , but they claimed it all the more on grounds of their ancient culture.
All parties were agreed that an Italian faculty of laws should be created; the difficulty lay in the choice of the place. The Italians demanded Trieste; but the Government was afraid to let this Adriatic port become the centre of an irredenta; moreover the Southern Slavs of the city wished it kept free from an Italian educational establishment.
Bienerth in brought about a compromise; namely, that it should be founded at once, the situation to be provisionally in Vienna, and to be transferred within four years to Italian national territory.
The German National Union Nationalverband agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.
But in spite of the constant renewal of negotiations for a compromise it was impossible to arrive at any agreement, until the outbreak of war left all the projects for a Ruthenian university at Lemberg, a Slovene one in Laibach, and a second Czech one in Moravia, unrealized.
One of the first measures of newly established Hungarian government was to provide supplementary schools of a non-denominational character.
By a law passed in attendance at school is obligatory on all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. But the number of state-aided elementary schools is continually increasing, as the spread of the Magyar language to the other races through the medium of the elementary schools is one of the principal concerns of the Hungarian government, and is vigorously pursued.
Since infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, have been maintained either by the communes or by the state.
The public instruction of Hungary contains three other groups of educational institutions: The middle schools comprise classical schools gymnasia which are preparatory for the universities and other " high schools," and modern schools Realschulen preparatory for the technical schools.
Their course of study is generally eight years, and they are maintained mostly by the state. The state-maintained gymnasia are mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches have been in existence for three, or sometimes four, centuries.
The number of middle schools in was with teachers, attended by 71, pupils; in their number was , attended by 40, pupils. None of these medieval universities survived the Ottoman wars.
Its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics BME is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure.
The high schools include the universities, of which Hungary possesses Five, all maintained by the state: Newer universities were established in Debrecen in , and Pozsony university was reestablished after a half millennium in They have four faculties: There are besides ten high schools of law, called academies, which in were attended by pupils.
The Polytechnicum in Budapest, founded in , which contains four faculties and was attended in by pupils, is also considered a high school. There were in Hungary in forty-nine high theological colleges, twenty-nine Catholic; five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish.
There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools — for design, painting, sculpture, music.
The Army was under the command of Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen , an old-fashioned bureaucrat who opposed modernization. Its military force was composed of the common army ; the special armies, namely the Austrian Landwehr , and the Hungarian Honved , which were separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-en masse.
As stated above, the common army stood under the administration of the joint minister of war, while the special armies were under the administration of the respective ministries of national defence.
The yearly contingent of recruits for the army was fixed by the military bills voted on by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and was generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns.
It amounted in to , men, of which Austria furnished 59, men, and Hungary 43, Besides 10, men were annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12, to the Hungarian Honved.
The term of service was two years three years in the cavalry with the colours, seven or eight in the reserve and two in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service was spent in various special reserves.
The common minister of war was the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honved, which were committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states.
But the supreme command of the army was nominally vested in the monarch, who had the power to take all measures regarding the whole army.
In practice the emperor's nephew Archduke Albrecht was his chief military advisor and made the policy decisions. The Austro-Hungarian navy was mainly a coast defence force, and also included a flotilla of monitors for the Danube.
It was administered by the naval department of the ministry of war. Russian Pan-Slavic organizations sent aid to the Balkan rebels and so pressured the tsar's government to declare war on the Ottoman Empire in in the name of protecting Orthodox Christians.
This treaty sparked an international uproar that almost resulted in a general European war. Austria-Hungary and Britain feared that a large Bulgaria would become a Russian satellite that would enable the tsar to dominate the Balkans.
British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli moved warships into position against Russia to halt the advance of Russian influence in the eastern Mediterranean so close to Britain's route through the Suez Canal.
The Congress of Berlin rolled back the Russian victory by partitioning the large Bulgarian state that Russia had carved out of Ottoman territory and denying any part of Bulgaria full independence from the Ottomans.
Austria occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as a way of gaining clout in the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became fully independent.
Nonetheless the Balkans remained a site of political unrest with teeming ambition for independence and great power rivalries. As a result, Greater Bulgaria was broken up and Serbian independence was guaranteed.
In another measure to keep the Russians out of the Balkans Austria-Hungary formed an alliance, the Mediterranean Entente, with Britain and Italy in and concluded mutual defence pacts with Germany in and Romania in against a possible Russian attack.
Anxious about Balkan instability and Russian aggression, and to counter French interests in Europe, Austria-Hungary forged a defensive alliance with Germany in October and in May In October Italy joined this partnership in the Triple Alliance largely because of Italy's imperial rivalries with France.
The annexation in led some in Vienna to contemplate combining Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia to form a third Slavic component of the monarchy.
The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilian , and his only son, Rudolf made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinand , heir to the throne.
The Archduke was rumoured to have been an advocate for this trialism as a means to limit the power of the Hungarian aristocracy.
A proclamation issued on the occasion of its annexation to the Habsburg Monarchy in promised these lands constitutional institutions, which should secure to their inhabitants full civil rights and a share in the management of their own affairs by means of a local representative assembly.
In performance of this promise a constitution was promulgated in This included a Territorial Statute Landesstatut with the setting up of a Territorial Diet, regulations for the election and procedure of the Diet, a law of associations, a law of public meetings, and a law dealing with the district councils.
According to this statute Bosnia-Herzegovina formed a single administrative territory under the responsible direction and supervision of the Ministry of Finance of the Dual Monarchy in Vienna.
The administration of the country, together with the carrying out of the laws, devolved upon the Territorial Government in Sarajevo, which was subordinate and responsible to the Common Ministry of Finance.
The existing judicial and administrative authorities of the Territory retained their previous organization and functions.
That statute introduced the modern rights and laws in Bosnia — Herzegovina, and it guaranteed generally the civil rights of the inhabitants of the Territory, namely citizenship, personal liberty, protection by the competent judicial authorities, liberty of creed and conscience, preservation of the national individuality and language, freedom of speech, freedom of learning and education, inviolability of the domicile, secrecy of posts and telegraphs, inviolability of property, the right of petition, and finally the right of holding meetings.
The Diet Sabor of Bosnia-Herzegovina set up consisted of a single Chamber, elected on the principle of the representation of interests.
It numbered 92 members. Of these 20 consisted of representatives of all the religious confessions, the president of the Supreme Court, the president of the Chamber of Advocates, the president of the Chamber of Commerce, and the mayor of Sarajevo.
In addition to these were 72 deputies, elected by three curiae or electoral groups. The first curia included the large landowners, the highest taxpayers, and people who had reached a certain standard of education without regard to the amount they paid in taxes.
To the second curia belonged inhabitants of the towns not qualified to vote in the first; to the third, country dwellers disqualified in the same way.
With this curial system was combined the grouping of the mandates and of the electors according to the three dominant creeds Catholic, Serbian Orthodox, Muslim.
To the adherents of other creeds the right was conceded of voting with one or other of the religious electoral bodies within the curia to which they belonged.
It injured some people nearby, and Franz Ferdinand's convoy could carry on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them quickly.
About an hour later, when Franz Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where Gavrilo Princip by coincidence stood.
With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. The reaction among the Austrian people was mild, almost indifferent. Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever.
On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened. The assassination excessively intensified the existing traditional religion-based ethnic hostilities in Bosnia.
However, in Sarajevo itself, Austrian authorities encouraged   violence against the Serb residents, which resulted in the Anti-Serb riots of Sarajevo , in which Catholic Croats and Bosnian Muslims killed two and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings.
While the empire's military spending had not even doubled since the Congress of Berlin , Germany's spending had risen fivefold, and the British, Russian, and French expenditures threefold.
The empire had lost ethnic Italian areas to Piedmont because of nationalist movements that had swept through Italy, and many Austro-Hungarians perceived as imminent the threat of losing to Serbia the southern territories inhabited by Slavs.
Serbia had recently gained considerable territory in the Second Balkan War of , causing much distress in government circles in Vienna and Budapest.
Former ambassador and foreign minister Count Alois Aehrenthal had assumed that any future war would be in the Balkan region.
He used the hitherto unknown word "Weltkrieg" meaning World War. They proposed to solve the dispute with arms, attacking Serbia. Tisza proposed to give the government of Serbia time to take a stand as to whether it was involved in the organisation of the murder and proposed a peaceful resolution, arguing that the international situation would settle soon.
Returning to Budapest, he wrote to Emperor Franz Joseph saying he would not take any responsibility for the armed conflict because there was no proof that Serbia had plotted the assassination.
Tisza opposed a war with Serbia, stating correctly, as it turned out that any war with the Serbs was bound to trigger a war with Russia and hence a general European war.
He thought that even a successful Austro-Hungarian war would be disastrous for the integrity of Kingdom of Hungary, where Hungary would be the next victim of Austrian politics.